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Thu, 25 May 2006

The Carlisle Indian Industrial School Band

Posted by Gerry at 2:05 PM EDT
Updated: Thu, 25 May 2006 2:07 PM EDT
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Research Trip to Carlise / Shippensburg a Success!!!!!
his past Wednesday, I made a planned visit to both the Shippensburg Historical Society on King Street and the Cumberland County Historical Society in Carlisle in the hopes of maybe getting a better idea of what musical heritage this area can offer.

The results were extraordinary!!!!!

The Cumberland County Historical Society was able to give me not only specific bands and members within these distinguished groups, but also a clear time period to concentrate on that will allow me to build an organized time line and lineage from the early 1800s to the present.

Though the movement towards village and town bands began in the early Nineteenth Century, the motives for such organizations were as diverse as the bands themselves. Besides the traditional motives of entertainment at parades and outdoor concerts, town and village bands preformed at public picnics, town or county fairs, railroad openings, political rallies and events, local resorts, and (probably the most important of all for us brothers) fraternal conventions and functions, such as the Free Masons and other groups.

The growth of these bands, however, was at first stunted by a combination of limited technology due to a national crisis and inconsistent leadership. Valved brass instruments, necessary for making the town and village bands as strong and vibrant an attraction as they were to become, would not be invented until the mid-Nineteenth Century and, by that time, America would be embroiled in the American Civil War, leaving little time to the development of musical industries when all means at the nation’s disposal were needed to fight the conflict. Due to this, many of the early town and village bands consisted of only woodwinds such as flutes, bassoons, and clarinets. Also, the combination of the massive loss of men due to the war and “pass-time” nature of the membership made the groups very fluid without a strong director or leader to guide them. Such early bands tended to form and then dissolve very quickly. The American Volunteer, an old Carlisle newspaper, makes its first reference of town bands in an 1844 article, which reports of the existence of a “Carlisle Brass Band” of “well-known Musical Amateurs”. However, thought valved instruments were first developed in 1814 by German composer Gottfried Henrich Stolzel, it is hard to imagine that this technology could have been transported so quickly to the Americas. Other sources have sighted the start of town or village bands in the county as Shippensburg, who reportadly had a town band as early as 1835.

As was metioned before, the American Civil War stunnted the growth of town and village bands during the mid-Nineteenth Century, but, in a way, it also helped to propell the movement. Music was a vital part of military life (which I got the chance to research extensively through the Tri-M Music Honors Society during my high school years) and Cumberland County was fertile ground for musical influence. A great example of this is the Garrison Band at the Carlisle Army Barracks, who preformed regular weekly or twice-weekly concerts during the summer months from the 1840s through 1861. However, the Band’s main responsibility was to military ceremony, leaving one witness to report that the Band’s innvolvement in “[t]he beautiful ceremony never palled and never failed to fill [the audience] with love and loyalty [of country].”

The first civilian bands following the War Between the States, organized around the most prominent and economically-minded cities in the county: Mechanicsburg, Newville, and Carlisle. In Mechanicsburg, the most prominent band was the Silver Cornet Band, which was later renamed the Singer Cornet Band in honor of one of its directors, Davis Singer. It was originally formed in 1852 by a local merchant named I.S. Ederly for over seventy years. The Carlisle Herald noted in 1886: “[The Singer Band has] demonstrated beyond a shadow of a doubt that they as a musical organization stands second to none in the State.”

Newville witnessed the growth of its first bands in 1872. In 1885, the prominent Keystone Band was former by local entrepreneur Harry A. Durnbaugh who helped the group raise between $5,000 and $6,000 dollars for the purchase of new silver horns. He also brought in a Newport, Pennsylvania-born cornet virtuoso William Paris Chambers, who would go on to become a famous and critically-acclaimed American composer and bandleader in both the United States and Europe. Chambers began to teach himself how to play the cornet at the age of thirteen and by eighteen he was the lead soloist and leader of the Keystone Band. In 1878, he left the group to become the musical director for the Capital City Band in Harrisburg and, later, the Great Southern Band of Baltimore. During the Twentieth Century, he continued to tour and perform with various groups across Europe and North America, leaving many newspapers to wonder if he was the “greatest cornet soloist in the world”. A talented composer as well, Chambers produced many pieces during his lifetime including Cornet solos, waltzes, marches and concert overtures. His most famous works include Boys of the old Brigade and Chicago Tribune.

Carlise saw its first town band in 1855 thanks to both the influence of the Carlise Barracks and their military music, but also nearby Dickenson College and its dedicated populace of college musicians and, later, The Carlisle Indian Industrial School and its band of dedicated musicians. Town bands, in these early days, were especially important in Carlise because they provided much needed moral-boosts for the citizenry during they terrible days of the Civil War when Confederate troops shelled and occupied the city. In 1869, Dickinson College erected a bandstand on their campus and opened it to the use of local town and village bands, who gave a series of concerts their throughout the summer. In 1873, Carlise was further influenced by the arrival of the Royal Imperial German 11th Battalion Pioneer Band, who had served with distinction for the German Empire during the Fraco-Prussian War and where world-renowned. These German musicians played a series of concerts at the Carlisle Court House, due in no small part to the efforts of local physician Dr. J.J. Zitzer, who was also the treasurer for one of Carlisle’s local town bands. The performance of the Pioneer Band would have a lasting impression on local amateurs as bands copied the German-style of uniform dress (helmets and epaulets) and invigorated the populace to promote their local band scene by hosting conventions for local groups. The first of these conventions took place in Hummelstown in 1873 and was attended by bands from all over Cumberland and Dauphin Counties. The following year, Newville hosted the convention, which would become an annual event will 1876.

Dickinson College, which was established as a colonial grammar school in 1773 by Dr. Benjamin Rush (a Philadelphia physician and signer of the Declaration of Independence) and later chartered as the United State’s first post-colonial institution of higher education in 1783, created its own brass band in the late-Nineteenth Century under the direction of a tireless local musician and bandleader named Phil Norman. It appears from the scant accounts I was able to find on Norman that he was a great supporter of the arts, especially music, within minority communities like Native Americans and African-Americans. Whether he was a supported of American assimilation of minorities is still to be determined. Norman assisted Clara Coleman, a teacher at the Carlise Indian Industrial School, in creating a band in 1880 with the help of second-hand brass instruments from a Boston family. Since most students of the school were required to take music lessons as part of their instruction, finding recruits for the new band was not hard and the Carlise Indian School Band became a popular parade attraction and example of American enculturation policy. The band preformed at every inauguration of a new school president and became almost as well-known national as the School’s football program and athletics. Dennison Wheelock, an Oneida Indian student at the school, took over for Norman as the band’s leader, giving regular concerts at the school’s bandstand for the general public. Today a replica bandstand is on the grounds of the school and is dedicated to him, the Wheelock Bandstand. Norman also helped to found the Carlise Cornet Band, which was an all African-American group. He would be the group’s first director. A local newspaper was quoted as saying, “Carlisle can claim what none of her sister towns can claim: a first class colored band.”

All of this information itself showcases a staggeringly rich and colorful history that our brotherhood should be aware of. I hope to return to Carlisle at some point to continue the job of finding out more.

Posted by Gerry at 1:54 PM EDT
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Thu, 18 May 2006
The Ship Town Band / Ship "Blaskapelle" German Band
With the help of the Shippensburg Town Band website, I was able to do some pulmonary research on the Town Band in anticipation for my trip to the Shippensburg Historical Society on Wednesday.

The Shippensburg Town Band was first organized in 1922 by a local resident named Salvado Callangelo. Before then Shippensburg had had other locally organized town bands specifically the Walter C. Snodgrass Cornet Concert Band, which preformed at local concerts and parades, and the Edward Shippen Military Band, which was formed in 1910 and preformed at various public functions and festivals.

The Town Band really got going in 1922 when a local delegation visited Clarence Smith, the director of Newville Town Band and invited him to come to Shippensburg and organize a town band of their own. The group started out with sixteen eager musicians, eventually going to thirty-three by the time of their first official performance in 1928. Smith was instrumental in this growth by organizing practices, raising money, and instituting a "beginner's program", that taught local residents interested in music how to play. The first performance consisted of three songs: a trombone / baritone duet known as "Lesser Trombones", "Brooke's Chicago Marine March", and the John Phillips Sousa standard "Stars and Stripes Forever". Smith would remain as the band's director till 1935 when he was replaced by professional musician and future co-founder of Harrisburg Symphony, Professor Ralph Schecter of Dickenson College. Schecter's first performance as conductor for the Town Band came in 1937 when the Band hosted legendary jazz musician and bandleader Glenn Miller and preformed his song, "On the Road to Mandalay". Schecter also started a lengthy connection with the fledgling music department at the Shippensburg State Teachers College, when they borrowed a tympani from their collection for use in a tribute concert to Irish-born American composer and cellist Victor Herbert, whom Schecter had meet. In 1940, the Town Band and the College would come together again to organize a benefit concert for the repair and lighting of the clock tower over the Shippensburg Memorial Lutheran Church. The concert was organized by Professor George E. Mark of the College. The band also hosted several fundraising concerts, in conjunction with the Shippensburg chapter of the American Legion, to buy blue and gold uniforms for their performances at concerts and parades.

In 1961, Schecter stepped down as director for the Shippensburg Town Band and local Kenneth Slater stepped in, serving for four years until one of the Band's own Donald Ballinger stepped forward to fill the leadership role. An accomplished trombonist, Ballinger had graduated with a Bachelor's degree in music from Gettysburg College and had studied music at the distinguished Peabody Conservatory of Music. He had also played in the Gettysburg Symphony and served as the director of the Gettysburg Blue and Gray Band from 1955-57. Ballinger would continue to serve as director and conductor for the Shippensburg Town Band from 1966 till his retirement in 2004.

The Shippensburg "Blaskapelle" German Band was formed of from volunteer musicians in 1985 in the hopes of forming a traditional German / Austrian Blasmusik band. They preform traditional German music (drinking songs, polkas, and waltzs) from the regions of Engerland, Bohemia, Bavaris, and Tirol.

Posted by Gerry at 7:40 PM EDT
Updated: Thu, 18 May 2006 7:45 PM EDT
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Early Shippensburg History / Edward Shippen & James Burd
With my election to the position of Historian for the Lambda Delta chapter of Kappa Kappa Psi secure and my instillation as an officer of the chapter's Executive Board, I am now finally free to advance my idea of exploring and compiling the rich cultural and music history of Shippensburg and the greater Cumberland County area for the benefit of my fraternity, my band, and my university.

Over the past year I have designated at least three vital historian institutions that will be instrumental in the creation of this project: The Lancaster County Historical Society, the Shippensburg Historical Society, and the Cumberland County Historical Society. All of which, in my opinion, hold keys to this great history-gathering undertaking. I had the opportunity on May 17 to visit the Lancaster County Historical Society in the hopes of gaining information on local musical trends here and how they might have influenced its sister county (information familiar to me thanks to my research through the Tri-M Music Honors Society), information on the town's founder and namesake (Lancastrian Edward Shippen), and any pulmonary information available on current musical groups or trends established in Shippensburg such as the Shippensburg Town Band, etc.

The first grouping of information I'd like to report on is the pulmonary information I have gathered on Edward Shippen. Shippen was a renowned elder statesman in Lancaster during the days of the American Revolution and his influence on local history is something I have read a lot on through my work at the Discover Lancaster County History Museum in Lancaster and the Lancaster Historical Society had a wealth of information to share. Born on July 9, 1703 to Massachusetts Quakers Joseph Shippen and Abigail Grosse, Shippen was destined to be a character in Pennsylvania history thanks to the example of his father. Due to his father's strong political feelings, his multiple re-marriages, and his constant "qurrel[ing] with the Boston Quakers", the elder Shippen (who probably worked as an attorney) moved his family further south to Philadelphia where he would go on to serve as the Chief Justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court in 1699 and Philadelphia's second mayor (following the Penn-appointed Humphrey Morrey thus making him Philadelphia's first legitimately elected mayor) from 1701 to 1703.

Being the eldest son, Edward followed his father into the practice of the law, opening his own practice, and gaining a position in the Philadelphia City Council in 1732. He also began to establish himself as a prosperous merchant, going into business with renowned Indian diplomat and colonial secretary James Logan and eventually becoming his business partner in 1732. In 1744, Shippen was elected mayor of Philadelphia. He would not hold the position long however. In close-knit Philadelphia society, Shippen had sparked rumors of his fitfulness for office when he had divorced his first wife, Sarah Plumley, and married a much younger woman, Mary Gray, before his first marriage was nullified. The gossip sparked a damaging scandal to Shippen's reputation within the conservative Quaker Assembly and Shippen left Philadelphia in 1745. During his time as a merchant, his business dealing had taken him to a small frontier town called Lancaster where he had negotiated the local fur trade. Shippen moved his new family there and began to build not only a prosperous private law practice, but also a vibrant civic resume serving as Recorder and Register of Deeds, Paymaster, and city burgess (the colonial equivalent of mayor) for Lancaster City.

When the American Revolution began, Shippen was a hesitant patriot. He objected to the taxes placed on the American colonists by the British Parliament, but believed (as his fellow Pennsylvanian Benjamin Franklin did) that if King George III was informed of these protests that he would act on the colony's behalf. In the meantime, he served on the local Committee of Correspondents, which helped to strengthen unity and communication between the colonies, and he organized a relief effort for the benefit of his old hometown of Boston when the British army closed the harbor and occupied the city following the Boston Tea Party. Following the fighting at Lexington and Concord, he chaired a committee that helped to organize and arm Lancaster's patriots to fight the British and oversee the day-to-day activities of the local POW camp that was organized to house British and German "Hessian" soldiers. Though Shippen would applaud the Declaration of Independence, his eldest son (who was also named Edward) did not share his father's zeal for the patriot cause and took a much more neutral stance from his home and merchant business in Philadelphia. His daughter Peggy, Shippen's granddaughter, would eventually marry an American general-turned-traitor named Benedict Arnold and become instrumental in his failed plot to sell out the American base at West Point to the British. Other interested facts that came to light about this elder Pennsylvania statesman included his love of gardening and books (he had one of the largest libraries in the colony) and his habit of brewing his own beer in the basement of his mansion!

While he was a public servant in Philadelphia, Shippen had purchased, in 1737, twelve hundred to thirteen hundred acres of land in what is today Cumberland County in the hopes of starting a town that would be beneficial to his business in the fur trade. He laid out the town carefully in accordance with local settlers in the area and heavily traveled Indian paths (one of which was the basis for King Street in Shippensburg). The new town would be named Shippensburg, after himself. Assisting the elder statesman and merchant in the day-to-day administration of town would be his son-in-law Joseph Burd, who was known in official records as the "superintendent" of affairs. Burd had been born in 1726 in Edinburgh, Scotland and had immigrated to America via London in 1747, establishing a prosperous merchant business and marrying Shippen's daughter Sarah, from his first wife, in 1749. Following a disastrous business venture in Jamaica in 1751, Shippen took pity on his son-in-law and sent him and his family west to Shippensburg to work in the growing farming and milling industries there a year later. When the French and Indian War erupted, Burd became an invaluable servant both to Shippen and the colonial government as he organized frontier defenses and strengthen military supply lines. Commissioned as a captain in the provincial militia, Burd oversaw the construction of roads for General Edward Braddock's ill-fated march on Fort Duquesne and helped to build many frontier forts, including Shippensburg's Fort Morris. He also served as a mediator and justice of the peace between the Native Americans and American settlers and between competing European settlers from Pennsylvania and Connecticut in the disputed Wyoming Valley. Following the war, he served as a magistrate in Lancaster, worked with his father-in-law on the Boston relief effort, and help an honorary commission in the Continental Army. Burd and Shippen's correspondents have been wonderfully preserved at the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia and offer a wealth of insight that might also hold clues to Shippensburg's early musical history.

Posted by Gerry at 7:06 PM EDT
Updated: Thu, 18 May 2006 7:09 PM EDT
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Sun, 12 Jun 2005
Introduction to the Study
In the fall of 1919, a group of ten young college students at the Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical (A&M) College in Stillwater, Oklahoma conceived the idea of a fraternal organization that honored the values of leadership, dedication, and brotherhood within the college band experience. However, these ten seemingly ordinary young men where honoring something much larger then just their love for college band music or the organization that had brought them together as brothers. They were honoring the American musical evolution that persists to the present day through the medium of their college band and how local musical experience has made that musical heritage in a word: ?unique?. The best example of this larger tribute can be seen in the elevation of Bohumil Mackovsky, the head of the music department at Oklahoma A&M College and the college?s long time Director of Bands, to first the Grand Presidency of Kappa Kappa Psi and then to immortality as our fraternal guiding spirit. His influence over the direction of the music department of Oklahoma A&M and the fraternal order of Kappa Kappa Psi is deeply rooted in his background as a professional musician, who?s experiences mirrored the cultural trends in music, how they influenced his catalog and selection of worthwhile pieces, and how the local community responded as his awaiting audience and influenced future projects as his most direct musical critics. It is only fitting then that if we as brothers are to better understand the musical traditions of our respective sponsoring institutions (and therefore to better serve them), that we must look to the communities that bore them and find their musical heritage and how it has influenced our traditions as college musicians.

As a member of the Alpha class, pledging into the Lambda Delta chapter of Kappa Kappa Psi in the spring of 2004, I was bombarded on a daily basis with the rich history of both the fraternity as a whole and of the local heritage of my university band. By doing this, our Vice-President of Membership and ?guiding spirit? hoped that we might better understand the traditions and workings of the fraternity better. Sitting in the hot and uncomfortable band room adjoining to Memorial Auditorium on the Shippensburg University campus, I couldn?t help but remember the words to my dear alma mater: ?In the dear old Cumberland Valley, beneath the glowing sky?proudly stands our alma mater, on a hill top high?? I wondered what had attracted such musical leaders and what had pushed the evolution of an organization that might have never existed otherwise. Shippensburg did not start as a musical college; rather it was a teacher?s college. In the spring of 2005, now a brother, I attended the Shippensburg graduation ceremony at Seth Grove Stadium and was astonished to see a group of old men and women with instruments and blue jackets playing before the crowd. They were the Shippensburg Town Band. I found myself wondering what was the story behind this group and role did it have to play in the University I now attended. Could they or their predecessors have helped to influence the starting of a music department here at Ship? The answers to these and other questions I?m sure can be found in the rich local history of the community and county in which this institution grew.

Posted by Gerry at 3:47 PM EDT
Updated: Thu, 16 Jun 2005 7:42 PM EDT
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